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Title: Rice Germplasm: Source of Iron and Zinc for Nutritional Security
Other Titles: NBU Journal of Plant Sciences, Vol.12, (March 2020) p 26-36
Authors: Roy, Subhas Chandra
Keywords: Rice germplasm
Nutritional security
iron zinc content
wild rice
Issue Date: Mar-2020
Publisher: University of North Bengal
Abstract: Rice is the most important food crop, more than half (½) of the world’s population depends on it for their sustainable livelihood. Population growth is increasing day by day and it will reach more than > 9 billion by 2050, and to feed the overpopulation we need to produce nearly double amount of food grains to fulfil the demand. It was projected that Global rice yields and consumption rate will rise by 12% and 13% respectively by the year 2027 (FAO 2018). The Green Revolution has played a prime role in the 1960s -1970s to increase agricultural productivity worldwide to make many countries in food self-sufficiency leading to food secured world. The present situation is posing serious challenge for global food security in coming decades due to climate change, limited availability of arable land and water, more over other natural resources are continued to exhaustion. Rice is consumed as sole source of energy mainly in South and Southeast Asia, Africa, and Latin America which causes micronutrients deficiency leading to chronic malnutrition. Malnutrition due to inadequate intake of micronutrients mostly iron and zinc can lead to ‘Hidden Hunger’, which is responsible for many diseases. Important micronutrients Fe and Zn deficiencies in rice promoting the hidden hunger and causes anemia, stunted growth, poor cognitive development for iron deficiency and for zinc deficiency that causes reduced immunity, diarrhea, lesions on skin, mental lethargy. Approximately 2 billion people are suffering from malnutrition deficiencies for iron and zinc. Micronutrient elements Fe and Zn are available in various local rice varieties which ranged from 6.3-24.4 mg/kg Fe and 13.53- 58.4 mg/kg Zn. Biofortification of rice can assist to alleviate malnutrition associated diseases among the poor people those who are depended on rice as staple food for 40-70% daily caloric intake. Nutritional studies recommended that 24–28 mg/ kg Zn and 13 mg/ kg Fe concentration in polished grain is vital to attain the 30% of human estimated average requirement. Biofortification of cereal foods through conventional breeding can be a good opportunity to improve micronutrient deficiency in the diets. Wild rice accessions (Oryza rufipogon, O.nivara, O. latifolia and O. officinalis) may be used to improve the mineral nutrition in rice grain through breeding and conserve as important resources.
ISSN: 0974-6927
Appears in Collections:NBU Journal of Plant Sciences, Vol.12, (March 2020)

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